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Urological Diseases

An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for their tendency to overproduce endocrine hormones.

Radial cystectomy is the gold standard treatment for organ confined muscle invasive or high grade superficial recurrent bladder cancer.  Laparoscopic approach for radial cystectomy is relatively new and studies available in literature show encouraging preoperative and short term oncological data. Urinary diversion can be performed either intracorporeally "pure laparoscopic or through a 5-7 cm mini laparotomy incision ( " laparocsopic assisted " ). When comparing "pure laparoscopic Technique " to " laparoscopic assisted " we found that morbidity of Laparoscopic radial cystectomy is larger due to uninary diversion procedure. Our data support the extra corporeal performance of bowel work and ureteroileal anastomoses. Laparoscopic assisted radial cystectomy is technically more efficient , associated with quicker recovery profile , and decreased complication rate.

Bladder stones are hardened clumps of minerals that form in the bladder. They may pass on their own, or you may need a procedure to remove them. Untreated, bladder stones can lead to urinary tract infections and trouble in urinating.

Urethral meatal stenosis or urethral stricture is a narrowing (stenosis) of the opening of the urethra at the external, thus constricting the opening through which urine leaves the body from the urinary bladder.

Hypospadias is a congenital disorder of the urethra where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis. It is the second-most common birth abnormality of the male reproductive system, affecting about one of every 250 males at birth

A kidney stone is a small, hard deposit that forms in the kidneys and is often painful when passed. Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that stick together in concentrated urine. They can be painful when passing through the urinary tract, but usually don't cause permanent damage. The most common symptom is severe pain, usually in the side of the abdomen, that's often associated with nausea. Treatment includes pain relievers and drinking lots of water to help pass the stone. Medical procedures may be required to remove or break up larger stones.

Urinary tract infections are caused by microbes such as bacteria overcoming the body's defenses in the urinary tract. They can affect the kidneys, bladder, and the tubes that run between them.

A reduction in the fullness of the vulva and the vagina.

Dryness, itching and burning in the vagina or on the vulva.

Pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal bleeding An increase in urinary tract infections due to a change in the acidity of the vagina.

PID (Pelvic inflammatory disease) can cause damage to the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the uterus. Pelvic pain that radiates to the abdomen, an abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain during intercourse or urination are common symptoms. If PID is untreated, it can cause infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Penile cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs on the skin of the penis or within the penis. In the UK, around 550 men are diagnosed with cancer of the penis each year. It most commonly affects men over 60 years of age.

Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans. A balloon-like swelling under the foreskin may occur with urination. In teenagers and adults, it may result in pain during an erection, but is otherwise not painful. Those affected are at greater risk of inflammation of the glans, known as balanitis, and other complications.

A posterior urethral valve is an obstructing membrane in the posterior male urethra as a result of abnormal utero development. It is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in male new-borns. The disorder varies in degree, with mild cases followed conservatively.

This is a cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-shaped gland that produces seminal fluid.

A man's prostate produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperms.

Symptoms include difficulty in urination, but sometimes there are no symptoms at all. Some types of prostate cancer grow slowly. In those cases, monitoring is recommended. Other types are aggressive and require radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy or other treatments.

Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney tissue, calyces, and renal pelvis. It is commonly caused by bacterial infection that has spread up the urinary tract or travelled through the bloodstream to the kidneys.

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney. The two most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, also known as urothelial cell carcinoma) of the renal pelvis. These names reflect the type of cell from which the cancer developed.

The different types of kidney cancer (such as RCC and UCC) develop in different ways, meaning that the diseases have different long term outcomes, and need to be staged and treated in different ways. RCC is responsible for approximately 80% of primary renal cancers, and UCC accounts for majority of the remainder.

Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract, and various other structures. It may present with lower back pain, kidney failure, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and other obstructive symptoms.

A urethral stricture is a narrowing of the urethra caused by injury, instrumentation, infection and certain non-infectious forms of urethritis.

This is a cancer in the male organs that make male hormones and sperm (testicles). The testicles are located inside a loose bag of skin (scrotum) underneath the penis. Symptoms include a lump in either testicle and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. Treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

Undescended testes are associated with reduced fertility, increased risk of testicular germ cell tumors and psychological problems when the boy is grown. Undescended testes are also more susceptible to testicular torsion (and subsequent infarction) and inguinal hernias. Without intervention, an undescended testicle will usually descend during the first year of life, but to reduce these risks, undescended testes can be brought into the scrotum in infancy by a surgical procedure called an orchiopexy.

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is when part of the kidney is blocked. Most often it is blocked at the renal pelvis. This is where the kidney attaches to one of the ureters (the tubes that carry urine to the bladder). The blockage slows or stops the flow of urine out of the kidney.

Ureteric Carcinoma is cancer of the ureters, muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. It is also known as ureter cancer, renal pelvic cancer, and rarely ureteric cancer or ureteral cancer. Cancer in this location is rare. Ureteral cancer is usually transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is "a common cause of ureter cancer and other urinary (renal pelvic) tract cancers.

A ureterovaginal fistula is an abnormal passageway existing between the ureter and the vagina. It presents as urinary incontinence. Its impact on women is to reduce the "quality of life dramatically".

Urogenital tuberculosis is mostly a chronic infection of the urogenital organs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urogenital fistula (UGF). VVF is an abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder and the vagina that allows the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault.

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